The first group includes materials where spatial connections are formed due to the curvature of all or part of the fibers in one of the directions. These materials are created using the traditional system of two threads: curved warp threads and straight weft threads.
The second group includes the materials, which spatial relationships are created through the introduction of fibers in the third direction. These composite materials are formed by a system of three strands in a rectangular or cylindrical coordinate system. The fibers can be mutually orthogonal in three directions or arranged at an angle in one of the reinforcement planes.
Three-dimensional reinforced preforms can be created on special weaving machines according to a carefully developed technological program. The photo below shows a shuttle weaving automated complex developed and manufactured by LLC "SmartService". The use of three-dimensional reinforced preforms for the manufacture of composite materials allows to increase by times the strength of separation in the transversal direction and significantly increase the shear resistance compared to the strength of layered materials.
Sizeable, three-dimensional reinforcing fillers obtained by 3D weaving can be either thin-walled or thick- walled. Thin-walled have a complex profile and are designed to form light sized, thin-walled hollow panels or thin-walled profiles that can change their profile, structure and thickness along the length of the profile.
Thick-walled (solid) is a sizeable reinforcing structure for forming sizeable plates or mats, the entire content of which is filled with reinforcing threads located in three perpendicular directions, forming an orthogonal reinforcement structure. It is also possible to have a more complex structure, when threads that run at an angle to the vertical are added to the orthogonal structure. Products formed on the basis of such reinforcing PCM structures can be subjected to additional mechanical processing, taking into account the location of the reinforcing elements inside it.